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APA Standards – Appointments

Main objective of appointments

The main objective of appointments according to the APA Standards is to avoid intellectual property plagiarism. The fact of quoting is the way to recognize and value the work done by other researchers that is used as support for the manuscript that is being prepared.

It is important to be aware, at the time of making use of fragments of the selected literature, to quote the author or original authors of the ideas that are reinforcing, supporting or complementing the article that is being written. In the same way, this complement can allow your own ideas to be highlighted when contrasting them with other ideas taken from another author.

In addition, it is important that the research in preparation contains several citations even more if they are taken from recognized authors, as this will give greater weight to it. An article without appointments loses credibility.

Citing the ideas that are taken from other research must be done by ethical sense, which is included within the principles of any researcher. The ability to act in an ethical manner will allow the researcher to acquire respect and credibility within the field in which he or she works.

The citation will depend on the way in which the fragment or idea is introduced into the work and, depending on this, the style of the citation will vary. Below we will explain the different types of citations that have been raised within the manual of the APA Standards.

Within the classification of appointments according to the APA Standards, there are three types:

Textual citations: This type of quotes represents the exact transcription of the idea found in a selected source. Within this type, there are two groups:

a) Long textual quotes: They are used when the fragment to be transcribed consists of more than 40 words – without counting connectors and prepositions. This type of appointment is made in a separate paragraph, without quotation marks and with indentation of 2 cm. And in the second line on, insert indentation of 0.5 cm. The line spacing will be simple, that is 1 cm.

For example:

The concept of mature sexual love proposed by Kernberg (1997) mentions that:

First, sexual arousal transformed into erotic desire by another person. Secondly, the Tenderness that derives from the integration of the representations of the object and the self loaded libidinally and aggressively, with a predominance of love over aggression and tolerance to the normal ambivalence that characterizes all human relationships.

Third, an identification with the other that includes the reciprocal genital identification and a deep empathy with the generic identity of the other. Fourth, a mature form of idealization, along with a deep commitment to the other and to the relationship. And finally, the passionate nature of the love relationship in the three aspects: the sexual relationship, the object relationship and the investiture of the couple’s superego.


Regarding the visual perception, Crick (1994) assures that the information that the individuals receive through this way, is usually ambiguous.

In terms of visual perception, the information that individuals receive through this route is usually ambiguous (Crick, 1994)

Appointments Appointments: This type of appointments is used when the original source is no longer printed and / or can not be accessed by usual sources. In this way, only this information can be accessed by another author. In other words, this type of quote is used when the idea of an author is being used by the author of the source that is being used. In this case, it will be cited as follows:


Freud (as cited in Cáceres, 2009)

(Freud as cited in Cáceres, 2009)